Local HVAC System

Some buildings have multiple zones or have a large, single-zone, which needs central HVAC systems to serve and provide thermal needs. Few buildings have a single zone which needs equipment located inside the zone itself, such as small houses and residential apartments. This type of system is considered as local HVAC systems since each equipment serving its zone without crossing boundaries to other adjacent zones (e.g., using an air conditioner to cool down a bedroom, or using an electrical heater for the living room). Therefore, a single zone requires only one-point control point connected to a Thermo- stat to activate the local HVAC system. Some buildings have multiple local HVAC systems as proper equipment serving specific single zones and controlled by the one-point control of the desired zone. However, these local systems are not connected and integrated into central systems, but still part of a large full-building HVAC system. There are many types of local HVAC systems. Local heating systems. A single zone requires a complete, single package of heating system which contains heat source and distribution system. Some examples include portable electric heaters, electric resistance baseboard radiators, replaces and wood stoves, and infrared heaters. Local cooling systems include active systems as air-conditioning systems that provide cooling, a proper air distribution inside a zone, and control of humidification, and natural systems as convective cooling in open window, evaporative cooling in fountains. Local ventilation systems are forced systems using devices such as window fan to allow air movement between outdoor and a single zone without changing in the thermal environment of the zone. Other systems used for ventilation are air circulation devices such as desk or paddle fans to improve the thermal comfort of the space by allowing the heat to be transferred by conventional mode. A local air conditioning system is a complete package that can contain cooling and heating source, a circulation fan, a filter, and control devices. A Window air-conditioner is a packaged device consisting of a vapour compression refrigeration cycle that contains a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, and an evaporator, in addition to a fan, a filter, control system and housing. Window air-conditioners can be installed in a framed or unframed opening in building walls and in window openings without any ductwork and distribution the cooling or heating air effectively inside the conditioned space. The air conditioning contains both evaporator and condenser where the condenser is located outside the space while the evaporate is inside the space, however, it serves the entire single zone with the thermal requirements. The heating process can be achieved by adding an electric resistance coil in the air conditioning or reversing the refrigeration cycle to act as a heat pump. Many feature designs are produced to provide aesthetical values and improve the quality and response. The unitary air-conditioner is similar to window air conditioners from the equipment perspective, but it is designed for commercial buildings. It is installed on the exterior wall of the building and generally located in Horizontal hierarchy representation of the main types of local HVAC systems.

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