Various manufacturers and government R&D organizations have been supporting the latest technologies that can help improve performance and reduce system costs. In a 2011 report, IEA researchers set a performance target for installed equipment of 20%-40% A/C efficiency improvement by 2030 and 30%-50% improvement by 2050 to reach global building energy-efficiency goals. In June of 2016, the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) launched an Advanced Cooling Challenge with the support of the governments of the United States, India, China, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. The challenge aims to encourage the development and deployment of super-efficient, smart, climate-friendly, and affordable cooling technologies. Numerous manufacturers and nonprofit groups have made commitments to support the challenge. Similar to the IEA report, the Clean Energy Ministerial challenge aims to improve average A/C system efficiency by 30% by 2030. This could reduce global CO2 emissions by up to 25 billion metric tons over the lifetime of the equipment, which is equivalent to eliminating the annual emissions of 1,550 coal-fired power plants. Selected products on the market today can meet or exceed the Advanced Cooling Challenge efficiency targets for different A/C equipment types. While current technologies may provide high-efficiency performance, the targets and products assume high GWP HFC refrigerants, and the transition to low-GWP refrigerants may pose new challenges to match both baseline and high-efficiency products. Nevertheless, laboratory testing has revealed several alternative refrigerants that provide similar or improved efficiency (COP) and capacity compared to the R 410A baseline with only soft-optimization. These initial results suggest that the A/C industry can meet or exceed these efficiency targets with A/C systems designed specifically for low-GWP refrigerants. While today’s most efficient products already meet the EIA’s performance targets, many of these high-efficiency technologies still have prohibitively high upfront costs for most of the global market. For example, the highest efficiency A/C products in the U.S. can carry an upfront cost premium of 50%-150% or greater, although this spread is gradually decreasing. Consumers predominantly purchase baseline or moderate-efficiency equipment, so reducing the cost of high-efficiency products will continue to be a key research focus. Along with performance goals, which reduce operating costs, the IEA also sets an equipment cost reduction goal of 5-20% for high-efficiency technologies. This lower-cost, high-efficiency systems will have a larger market impact through wider customer adoption and have the potential to drive new government appliance standards. For these reasons, the BTO emerging technology program sets cost reduction targets for various heat pump systems to “bend the cost curve” for high-efficiency products and accelerate market adoption.
A local air conditioning system is a complete package that can contain cooling and heating source, a circulation fan, a filter, and control devices. There are three main types. Window air-conditioner. This system is a packaged device consisting of a vapour compression refrigeration cycle that contains a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, and an evaporator, in addition to a fan, a filter, control system and housing. Window air conditioners are mostly installed in a framed or unframed opening in building walls and in window openings without any ductwork and distribution the cooling or heating air effectively inside the conditioned space. The air conditioning consists of an evaporator and condenser where the condenser is located outside the space while the evaporate is inside the space, however, it serves the entire single zone with the thermal requirements. The heating process can be achieved by adding an electric resistance coil in the air conditioning or reversing the refrigeration cycle to act as a heat pump. Many feature designs are produced to provide aesthetical values and improve the quality and response. Unitary air-conditioner. It is similar to window air conditioners as far as the equipment is concerned but it is designed for commercial buildings. It is installed on the exterior wall of the building. There is a Horizontal hierarchy representation of the main types of local HVAC systems. A single zone will be having one unitary air-conditioner as in each guest room in many hotels. A packaged rooftop air- conditioner. It consists of vapour compression refrigeration cycle, a heat source such as heat pump and electric resistance; an air handler such as dampers, filter, and fan; and control devices. This system may be connected to ductwork and serve a large-size single zone that cannot be served by unitary or window air conditioners. Split systems. The split systems contain two central devices, the condenser, located outdoor, and the evaporator, located indoors. The two devices are connected by a conduit for refrigerant lines and wiring. This system takes care of small-scale single-zone systems since the location and installation of window, unitary or rooftop air conditioners may affect the esthetic value and architectural design of the building. The split systems consist of one condenser unit that is connected to multiple evaporator units to serve multiple zones as possible under the same conditions or different environmental conditions.
Plumbing has changed a lot from its usage in ancient Greece to supply water and carry sewage away. Today, a variety of materials are used in pipes that supply hot and cold water to every fixture in a house and also create a vital drain and vent system. Pipes like PEX, PVC, ABS, copper, and galvanized—are the different types of pipes commonly found in houses these days, both older homes and new construction. But not every pipe is suitable for use in all situations, nor are all types up to code. “Building codes set forth measures that should be adhered to, not only to ensure public safety but also to protect from property damage. Polyethene cross-linked pipe (PEX) is an affordable plastic tubing that’s popular for water supply lines because it doesn’t leach traces of rust or corrosion into the water as some other types of pipes (for instance, galvanized) have been known to do. It is also simple to install. “Its physical flexibility makes it easy to work with and manoeuvre compared with more rigid PVC pipe,” and the ability to use several connection methods allows it to work with a variety of tool options. The colour-coded construction is another factor essential for keeping plumbing organized. PEX tubing, such as Uponor AquaPEX Tubing comes in three colours: red for hot water, blue for cold water, and white for either hot or cold water. While traditional water supply lines branch off the main water line and can supply water to a number of fixtures, a single PEX tube attaches directly to a hot or cold faucet while the other end connects to a centrally located water distribution manifold, such as these Viega MANABLOC Manifolds The benefit of a manifold is that each PEX tube has its own shut-off valve, so you can easily turn the water off to a sink faucet when you need to make repairs without turning the water off to other fixtures. A single PEX tube that runs from the manifold to a fixture is usually referred to as a home run connection. Pipe made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is often used in a home’s sewage system. “DWV is a type of PVC pipe that is used in Drain, Waste, and Venting systems ,It should be used in applications with low-temperature and low-pressure needs,” meaning it’s ideal for a toilet’s drain line, but it’s not suitable for highly pressurized water supply lines or for carrying hot water. We typically find three-inch and four-inch PVC pipes and connections, such as this PVC DWV 90-degree Elbow Fitting in main drains and in a home’s main vent stack. Smaller PVC pipes, up to three inches, are often used for sink drains and plumbing vents to prevent air locks in drainage pipes
Smoke Detector is a device to fight against the smoke. By using ionization or photoelectric technique, the presence of the smoke is detected by the device. The components used include a photoelectric smoke detector, encoder, decoder, transmitter, receiver and siren. The relay is built in the smoke detector. On detecting the smoke, the relay is triggered. The relay then connects the transmit enable (TE) pin of the HT-12E encoder to ground causing the encoder to send a digital output to the transmitter. Apart from that, several smoke detector is one of the important things in placing them in the building. Even small buildings need more than one smoke detection system. The exact number depends on two things which are the number of levels in the building and the number of rooms. A house newly constructed requires a smoke alarm in each bedroom, one outside the bedroom area that is close enough to be heard through closed doors and a minimum of one on each level of the home. The objective of having a smoke alarm outside the bedroom area is to alert the sleeping occupants of a fire that starts outside of the bedrooms. Incase the bedrooms are located in different areas, then each area should have its smoke alarm. If a home is large, it is better to use more than one on each level. The closer the smoke alarm is the faster it will work. Moreover, the smoke detector should not be placed in garages for two reasons. First, garages are usually not heated or cooled. Sometimes, it is above or below the temperature range. Second, the smoke from engine exhaust fumes causes alarms and activates the smoke alarm. The HT12E is used for remote control application. It can encode N address bits and 12-N data bits information. The wireless smoke detection system is tested indoor and outdoor with smoke, noise, heat and flame itself. For the indoor test, a positive response is received for the first 70 meters because the signal fails to transmit over 80 meters onward. Even the distance between transmitter and receiver are tested in the building with the smoke and the presence of noise. Positive respond is recoded for the first 70meters. This result indirectly indicates that the noise is considered as a small interruption for signal transmission. On testing the system with heat and flame, negative results are recorded all over the range of distance due to the sensitivity of the smoke detector towards flame and heat. While for outdoor testing, the same procedures are used.
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an important side of natural ventilation application in buildings. In general, natural ventilation improves IAQ through three mechanisms. It is important to note that little ventilation may result in a poor IAQ, while excessive ventilation may cause undesired draughts. Ultimately, the ventilation rate should be sufficient to maintain both IAQ and thermal comfort requirements. In summer, we get sufficient oxygen through windows. In winter, background ventilation is required in a minimum rate of 400 mm2/ m2 of multi-cell building floor area. This can be achieved by using trickle ventilation. In addition, natural ventilation protects the environment from harmful gases. One of the most common gaseous pollutants is Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The effect of CO2 concentration on human being varies from deep respiration to immediate death. Thus, it is important to predict the expected CO2 concentration due to building occupants, equipment’s, external sources, etc., and ensure that the upper allowed limit is not exceeded. The amount of CO2 in the air is usually expressed in per cent, or in parts per million (ppm). There are various alternatives introduced to control this concentration like CO2 concentration sensors. On reaching the predefined level, these sensors automatically operate natural ventilation by opening windows or roof vents to replace the stale air with a fresh one. Natural ventilation, which is again a passive cooling strategy, is used to cool down indoor air, building structure, and building occupants. The role of natural ventilation in passive cooling is subject to changes in the local climatic conditions. For example: During summer: if the outdoor air temperature is less than the indoor one, airflow through a building removes internal heat gains and increase human thermal comfort. If the outdoor air temperature is higher than the indoor one, it is possible to reduce air temperature by some techniques such as night-time ventilation and underground cooling. In hot arid regions, natural ventilation works effectively with the help of an evaporative cooling method. If the outdoor and indoor air temperatures remain the same, the natural ventilation will provide fresh air and help in increasing the occupant’s comfort. In winter, minimum ventilation, or infiltration, the rate is required to maintain acceptable indoor air quality.
A well-designed return air strategy is essential for the performance of the HVAC system in an energy-efficient house with lower airflow requirements to meet the load. The return air must “see” a clear path from every room that has a supply outlet, except bathrooms or kitchens due to the potential for spreading odours through the house. A direct return from each room to the equipment is not desirable when trying to minimize duct lengths and pressure losses in the return system. Rooms without proper return air path tend to become pressurized, which will impede supply airflow and could result in comfort complaints. The usual door undercuts do not allow adequate return volume and are not appropriate for an energy-efficient house. Low resistance in the return air path has less than 0.05-inch water column (iwc) pressure loss. The pressure loss for a filter at the return grille must also be considered in the return air stream. The value for return capacity is two times the volume of the total supply air with an airflow velocity within the return at less than 500 feet per minute and the net free area that is sized 1.5 times the cross-sectional area of the return duct. The central return strategy is the simplest and effective way to get air back to the air handler. Each room that has a door to close it off from the central space except for the laundry and the hall both utilize an over-the-door method to transfer from that room back to the central return. turn, it Even with the proper net free area and sizing of the return duct, airflow can be restricted by turbulent air at the entrance of the return duct, causing poor performance and noise issues should be placed in a central hallway where it is adjacent to the main living space of the house. The selection and placement of the supply air outlets are essential to provide comfort in the space. The air must be delivered in a manner that mixes the supply air with the room air without introducing unacceptable noise or causing the sensation of a draft on the occupant. The distribution of air in the room is the function of the shape and size of the air outlet. At the same time, the placement of the air outlet is as important to the comfort in the room as is the type of air outlet that is selected.
Some buildings have multiple zones or have a large, single-zone, which needs central HVAC systems to serve and provide thermal needs. Few buildings have a single zone which needs equipment located inside the zone itself, such as small houses and residential apartments. This type of system is considered as local HVAC systems since each equipment serving its zone without crossing boundaries to other adjacent zones (e.g., using an air conditioner to cool down a bedroom, or using an electrical heater for the living room). Therefore, a single zone requires only one-point control point connected to a Thermo- stat to activate the local HVAC system. Some buildings have multiple local HVAC systems as proper equipment serving specific single zones and controlled by the one-point control of the desired zone. However, these local systems are not connected and integrated into central systems, but still part of a large full-building HVAC system. There are many types of local HVAC systems. Local heating systems. A single zone requires a complete, single package of heating system which contains heat source and distribution system. Some examples include portable electric heaters, electric resistance baseboard radiators, replaces and wood stoves, and infrared heaters. Local cooling systems include active systems as air-conditioning systems that provide cooling, a proper air distribution inside a zone, and control of humidification, and natural systems as convective cooling in open window, evaporative cooling in fountains. Local ventilation systems are forced systems using devices such as window fan to allow air movement between outdoor and a single zone without changing in the thermal environment of the zone. Other systems used for ventilation are air circulation devices such as desk or paddle fans to improve the thermal comfort of the space by allowing the heat to be transferred by conventional mode. A local air conditioning system is a complete package that can contain cooling and heating source, a circulation fan, a filter, and control devices. A Window air-conditioner is a packaged device consisting of a vapour compression refrigeration cycle that contains a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, and an evaporator, in addition to a fan, a filter, control system and housing. Window air-conditioners can be installed in a framed or unframed opening in building walls and in window openings without any ductwork and distribution the cooling or heating air effectively inside the conditioned space. The air conditioning contains both evaporator and condenser where the condenser is located outside the space while the evaporate is inside the space, however, it serves the entire single zone with the thermal requirements. The heating process can be achieved by adding an electric resistance coil in the air conditioning or reversing the refrigeration cycle to act as a heat pump. Many feature designs are produced to provide aesthetical values and improve the quality and response. The unitary air-conditioner is similar to window air conditioners from the equipment perspective, but it is designed for commercial buildings. It is installed on the exterior wall of the building and generally located in Horizontal hierarchy representation of the main types of local HVAC systems.
A well-designed septic tank must ﬁx a minimum residual detention time at which it becomes necessary to dislodge the tank. Many standards usually specify 24 hours. A minimum residual depth per occupant corresponding to the chosen residual detention time should also be speciﬁed. The overall residual depth is a result of the product of the residual depth per occupant and the number of occupant’s.For good design and for practical purposes, the overall residual depth value should not be lesser than 10cm and not more than 75cm. A very low residual depth will help in washing out the sludge and also interfere with inlet and outlet ﬁttings while too high residual depth will result in a tank that is of low length and depth ratio which will be ineﬃcient. Narrow tanks are opted to provide quiescent hydraulic conditions which favour settling and thus solids removal determine the volume of sludge that will accumulate in that period of time. The depth of sludge in the tank at this time is then obtained by dividing the volume of accumulated sludge with the plan area obtained as described above. The total depth of the tank is considered as the sum of sludge depth. Dividing the volume of sludge by the plane area gives the depth of the sludge. Thus the total depth of the tank is the sum of sludge depth, overall residual depth and depth of reserve volume. The depth of the reserve space should be equal to the residual depth since it is based on 24 hours detention time. If the overall depth of the tank is much higher than the length, a lower overall residual depth should be chosen and the design repeated residual depth and the depth of the reserve space. The reserved space must be equivalent to the volume of 24 hours of detention time. At last, the ratio of length to width is chosen and thus the length and the width can be determined. The length must be longer than the width so as to provide for quiescent conditions. Every septic tank is unique and therefore should be designed taking cognizance of the number of users, desired desludging interval and expected wastewater ﬂow which is a function of water availability. It is essential to know when to expect to dislodge their tanks. This should be an intrinsic aspect of the design. Septic tanks should have enough initial volume for long term storage of sludge to avoid frequent desludging. Tanks with small volumes will soon get silted up with sludge thus requiring frequent desludging. People should not wait for their septic tanks to be overﬂowing with sludge before desludging as this reduces the life span of the whole system and also reduces the eﬃciency of the drain ﬁeld or soak pit.
The use of hot water heating systems can be seen in many types of buildings and facilities, especially for single-family houses and low rise multiple-dwelling buildings. Many HVAC systems use hot water systems as the primary source for heating the distribution air. The alternate chilled water cooling systems (hydronic cooling) are popular in certain large residential buildings, hospitals, and office buildings. The main components of a hydronic system are:
Boiler (heating source) or Chiller (cooling source)
Heating load (radiators, convectors, HVAC units, etc.) or cooling load (terminal units, fan-coil units, HVAC units, etc.)
Connected piping system
Make-up and fill water system
The hydronic system consists of
Pumping and piping arrangement
Depending on the particular application and the type of the facility, the proper selection of the boiler(s) or chiller(s), pumping systems, piping arrangement, and control system are essential for an effective and economical hydronic system. Temperature Classifications.—the temperature classifications of the hydronic systems
can be categorized as
1) Low-temperature water (LTW) system
2) Medium temperature water (MTW) system
3) High-temperature water (HTW) system
4) Chilled water (CW) system
5) Dual temperature water (DTW) system.
Low-Temperature Water (LWT) System: The maximum temperature limitation, in this case, is 250°F, The maximum allowable working pressure is 160 PSIG. The maximum working pressure depends on the static head of the building (height of the building) and the location of the system pump(s). It is recommended for working pressure of higher than 60 psi to use steam to water or water to water heat exchanger(s) so that the heating boiler and its closed piping loop can be separated and to operate at lower operating pressure without being affected by the high system working pressure. Separating the boiler by using heat exchanger(s) from the rest of the system minimizes boiler leaks and prolong the life of the boiler. Medium Temperature Water (MTW) System: In this case, the working temperature is ranged between 250°F and 350°F with an operating pressure of 300 PSIG. The maximum temperature is 400°F. Chilled Water (CW) System: In this case, the chiller(s) operates to provide a supply water temperature of 40 to 55° F, and a pressure of up to 120 PSIG. For temperatures below 40°F, mostly in process applications, antifreeze of brine solution may be used. Dual Temperature Water (DTW) System: In this case, both boiler(s) and chiller(s) are used with the common piping system to provide hot water heating and chilled water cooling. The maximum operating temperature of the heating water is limited to 180°F and
minimum 40°F for the chilled water.
Two basic types of evaporative cooling devices are used. The first of these, the direct- contact or an open cooling tower, exposes water directly to the cooling atmosphere, thereby transferring the source heat load directly to the air. The second one called a closed-circuit cooling tower, consists of indirect contact between heated fluid and atmosphere, essentially combining a heat exchanger and cooling tower into one relatively compact device. The most rudimentary of contact devices is a spray filled tower that exposes water to the air without any heat transfer medium or fills. In this device, the amount of water surface exposed to the air depends on the spray efficiency, and the time of contact depends on the elevation aid pressure of the water distribution system. To increase the contact surfaces and time of exposure, a heat transfer medium, or fill, is installed below the water distribution system, in the path of the air. The two types of fill-in use are splash type and film-type. Splash-type maximizes contact area and time by forcing the water to cascade through successive elevations of splash bars arranged in staggered rows. Film-type fill achieves the same effect by causing the water to flow in a thin layer over closely spaced sheets, principally polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that are arranged vertically. Either type of fill can be used in counter-flow and cross-flow towers. For thermal performance levels typically encountered in air conditioning and refrigeration, a tower with film-type fill is usually more compact. However, the splash-type fill is less sensitive to initial air and water distribution and, along with specially configured, more widely spaced film-type fills, is preferred for applications that may be subjected to blockage by scale, silt, or biological fouling. Closed-circuit cooling towers contain separate fluid circuits. An external circuit, in which water is exposed to the atmosphere as it cascades over the tubes of a coiled bundle, and an internal circuit, in which the fluid circulates inside the tubes of the coil bundle. In operation, heat flows from the internal fluid circuit, through the tube walls of the coil, to the external water circuit and then, by heat and mass transfer, to atmospheric air. As the internal fluid circuit never contacts the atmosphere, it +can be used to cool fluids other than water and/or to prevent contamination of the primary cooling circuit with airborne dirt and impurities. Some closed-circuit cooling tower designs with cooling tower fill to augment heat exchange in the coil.